A painting is the work of an enunciator, the painter, engraving his gesture, his manual sensory-motor movements, on an inscription surface, the canvas. What we call a painting is thus, on a basic non-aesthetic level, not only the result of an artistic «doing» related to a technical competence, but also of a «know-how-to-do-it» related to a cognitive competence. The drawing of a simple circle is both the result of a controlled doing of the painters hand and of a presupposed know-how guiding and structuring his manual gesture. These considerations can be applied to the construction of pictorial perspective. In that case, we need to elucidate the cognitive competence underlying its technical procedures. In this paper, we discuss perspective in a painting of Auguste Aridas (1848-1929), painter and professor at the National School of Art of Limoges for many years.